Hawker Hurricanes, RAF. Photograph courtesy of the Imperial War Museum
12 october 633 - The Battle of Hatfield Chase. Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Mercia and Gwynedd defeated the ruling Northumbria. This saw the start of the rise of the Mercian kingdom as the supreme English power during the Early Medieval period.
14 October 1066 - The Battle of Hastings. Between Harald II and the Duke of Normandy, later to become known as William the Conqueror. Norman victory that changed the face of England.
25 October 1415 - The Battle of Agincourt. Henry V army triumphed against the French nobility against the odds. A major battle during the Hundred Years' War.
23 October 1642 - The Battle of Edge Hill. The first battle of the English Civil War. The King Charles Royalist army against the Parliamentarians fought over constitutional change. Neither won this battle and this led to four more years' fighting.
21 October 1805 - The Battle of Trafalgar. Admiral Horatio Nelson led the British Navy fleet in the defeat of Franco-Spanish in this vital marine battle.
25 October 1854 - The Battle of Balaclava. The Charge of the Light Brigade, led by Lord Cardigan, saw the Brigade charge into Russian cannon fire as a result of miscommunication.
1 July to 18 November 1916 - The Battle of the Somme. One of the bloodiest battles ever, over 400,000 British men lost their lives in this First World War battle. There was poor intelligence, support and equipment and the result was a small gain in territory.
31 July to 10 Novermber 1917 - The Battle of Passenchdael. Another bloody battle in the First World War. A new strategy was hampered by unusual amounts of rain that produced huge volumes of mud and intolerable conditions. A heavy death toll on both sides.
10 July to 31 October 1940 - The Battle of Britain. A Second World War battle that took place in the air. German leader Adolf Hitler planned an invasion of Britain after conquering other European countries. The British victory was a turning point in the war showing that Hitler's German forces were not invincible.
23 October 1942 - TheSecond Battle of El Alamein. A Second World War battle fought in the desert of Egypt. Led by Field Marshal Montgomery against the Afrika Korps led by Erwin Rommel. A significant British victory which served as a turning point in the War.